Presence of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rueppell, 1835) at Lima Rock and Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman

Presence of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rueppell, 1835) at Lima Rock and Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman

تواجد السُلحفاة البحرية صقرية المنقار (سُلحفاة الشرفاف) عند صخرة ليما وجُزر الديمانيات في خليج عُمان ، سلطنة عُمان 

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography)

Reference :  Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Presence of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) at Lima Rock and Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 164, August 2018, pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

سُلحفاة بحر منقار الصقر أو سُلحفاة الشرفاف على عُمق 16 متراً عند موقع صخرة ليما ، بحر مُسندم ، خليج عُمان ... تصوير مُدربة الغواصين وأستاذة التصوير الفوتوغرافي التحتمائي الكابتن عُلا مُصطفى خلف ... 9 سبتمبر 2017

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) from 16 meters deep at Lima Rock, Musandam Sea, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. Photo by: PADI Scuba Dive Instructor Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 9th September 2017. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

في 9 سبتمبر 2017 تمكنت المُصورة الفوتوغرافية التحتمائية ومُدربة الغواصين الكابتن عُلا مُصطفى خلف من تصوير السُلحفاة البحرية صقرية المنقار (سُلحفاة الشرفاف) من على عُمق 16 متراً عند موقع صخرة ليما في بحر مُسندم العُماني وكذلك في يوم 22.09.2017 من موقع الأكواريوم في جُزر الديمانيات بخليج عُمان من على عٌمق 25 متراً .


السُلحفاة البحرية صقرية المنقار من الزواحف البحرية المُهددة بالإنقراض والتي تعيش في مختلف بحار العالم . طبيعة جسدها مُسطحة ، وتحميها صدفة قوية ، وهي تستعمل أرجلها مثل الزعانف لتوجيه نفسها في أعماق البحار . تمتاز هذه السلاحف بمنقارها الحاد المعقوف الذي يُفرقها عن السلاحف الأخرى ، إضافة إلى حواف صدفتها الحادة التي تبدو كالمنشار ؛ ويتغير لون هذه الصدفة بدرجةٍ صغيرة تبعاً لحرارة المياه التي تسكنها . ومع أنها تعيش جزءاً من حياتها في المُحيط المفتوح ، إلا أنها تقضي وقتاً أكثر في الأهوار الضحلة والشعاب المرجانية . ويصل طول السلاحف البالغة بالمتوسط إلى متر واحد ، ووزنها إلى نحو 80 كيلوغراماً . تعد هذه السلحفاة البحرية من الحيوانات القارتة ، إلا أن إسفنج البحر يمثل غذائها الرئيسي ، كما أنها تتغذى على الطحالب واللاسعات والمشطيات وقناديل البحر وشقائق النعمان البحرية والقشريات والأسماك (ويكيبيديا)


تتزاوج السلحفاة (اللجأة) صقرية المنقار مرة كل عامين ، ويكون التزاوج في أهوارٍ مُنعزلة ، وأما التعشيش فيكون على شواطئ الجُزر أو السواحل الرملية النائية ؛ وعند وضع البيض ، تجر الإناث أجسادها الثقيلة إلى الشاطئ تحت جنح المساء ، ثم تحفر عشاً في الرمال بإستعمال أرجلها الخلفية ، وتضع فيه بيوضها وتغطيها بالرمل من جديد ، وعادةً ما تحتوي أعشاش السُلحفاة نحو 140 بيضة . وبعد انتهاء العملية - التي تأخذ بضعة ساعاتٍ - تعود الأنثى للبحر وتترك بيضها . تزن اللجآت الصغيرة حديثة الفقس في الغالب أقلَّ من 24 غراماً ، وهي تفقس خلال الليل بعد نحو شهرين من وضع البيض . تكون ألوان الصغار قاتمةً ، ولديها أصدافٌ بشكل قلبٍ وبطول نحو 2.5 سنتيمترات . يزحف الصغار غريزياً بإتجاه البحر ، إذ يجذبهم إنعكاس القمر على سطح المياه ؛ لذلك قد تُعيقها أنوار الشوارع والمُدن . والصغار التي لا تنجح ببلوغ البحر قبل طلوع الشمس تصبح فريسةً لطيور الشاطئ وسرطانات البحر الشاطئية والضواري . تصل السلحفاة (اللجأة) صقرية المنقار مرحلة البلوغ عند عمر 20 عاماً ، ويُعتقد أن طول حياتها الإجمالي يصل ما بين 30 إلى 50 عاماً في البرية (ويكيبيديا) .

تُهاجر آلاف السلاحف البحرية سنوياً من شواطئ الخليج العربي والبحر الأحمر والصومال لتضع بيضها في شواطئ سلطنة عُمان . وتؤوي عُمان خمسة من أنواع السلاحف البحرية الأساسية السبعة ، وهي :  السلاحف الخضراء (الحمسة) وتنتشر في مُعظم سواحل عُمان وتكثر في رأس الحد ورأس الجنز وجزيرة مصيرة وجُزر الديمانيات ، وسلاحف الريماني وتُعشش في جزيرة مصيرة وسواحل  مُحافظة ظفار وجزر الديمانيات ، والسلاحف صقرية المنقار (الشرفاف) وتُعشش في سواحل مسقط وجُزر الديمانيات ، وسلاحف ريدلي الزيتونية  (التقشار) والتي تُعشش في جزيرة مصيرة ، وسلاحف النملة والتي توجد في المياه العُمانية ولكنها لا تُعشش في عُمان (موقع وزارة السياحة ، سلطنة عُمان) .


في الليل تسحب هذه المخلوقات  ذات الدُروع الثقيلة نفسها من المياه الضحلة  لتحفر بمشقة وعناء كبيرين حُفرة في الرمل ، بإستخدام أطرافها لتدفن فيها البيض ، ثم تعود إلى البحر ، وبعد نحو 55 يوماً يفقس البيض ، وتخرج الصغار لتبدأ أخطر رحلة في حياتها على الإطلاق ، مُحاولة تجنب الثعالب وسرطانات البحر والطيور الجائعة ، مُندفعة في طريقها إلى البحر ، حيث تجد الأمان فوق الأمواج المُتكسرة . وتعد الرحلات الليلية لمُشاهدة السلاحف البحرية من بين الأنشطة السياحية الأكثر شيوعاً (موقع وزارة السياحة ، سلطنة عُمان) .

سُلحفاة بحر منقار الصقر أو سُلحفاة الشرفاف على عُمق 25 متراً عند موقع الأكواريوم في جُزر الديمانيات بخليج عُمان ، سلطنة عُمان . تصوير مُدربة الغواصين وأستاذة التصوير الفوتوغرافي التحتمائي الكابتن عُلا خلف . 22.09.2017.

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) from 25 meters deep at Aquarium Dive site, Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman. Photo by: PADI Scuba Dive Instructor Ola Khalaf. 22.09.2017. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

On Saturday 09.09.2017 & Friday 22.09.2017, my wife the PADI Scuba Dive Instructor and Underwater Photography Instructor Ola Mostafa Khalaf managed to shoot magnificent photos of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) from 16 meters deep at Lima Rock, Musandam Sea, and from 25 meters deep at the Aquarium dive site, Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman.


The Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered sea turtle belonging to the family Cheloniidae, and has a worldwide distribution. The hawksbill's appearance is similar to that of other marine turtles. In general, it has a flattened body shape, a protective carapace, and flipper-like limbs, adapted for swimming in the open ocean. It is easily distinguished from other sea turtles by its sharp, curving beak with prominent tomium, and the saw-like appearance of its shell margins. Hawksbill shells slightly change colors, depending on water temperature. While this turtle lives part of its life in the open ocean, it spends more time in shallow lagoons and coral reefs. Adult hawksbill sea turtles typically grow to 1 meter in length, weighing around 80 kg on average. They feed mainly on sponges found on coral reefs; they also feed on crustaceans, algae, and fish. They are prey to large fish, sharks, and humans. The hawksbill sea turtles are endangered mainly due to human impact. Hawksbills mate biannually in secluded lagoons off their nesting beaches in remote islands throughout their range. After mating, females drag their heavy bodies high onto the beach during the night. They clear an area of debris and dig a nesting hole using their rear flippers, then lay clutches of eggs and cover them with sand. A nest contains around 140 eggs. After the hours-long process, the female returns to the sea. Their nests can be found throughout beaches in about 60 countries. The baby turtles, usually weighing less than 24 grams hatch at night after around two months. These newly emergent hatchlings are dark-colored, with heart-shaped carapaces measuring around 2.5 cm long. They instinctively crawl into the sea, attracted by the reflection of the moon on the water (possibly disrupted by light sources such as street lamps and lights). While they emerge under the cover of darkness, baby turtles that do not reach the water by daybreak are preyed upon by shorebirdsshore crabs, and other predators. Hawksbills reach maturity after 20 years; and they reach an age between 30 – 50 years (Wikipedia).

سُلحفاة بحر منقار الصقر أو سُلحفاة الشرفاف على عُمق 25 متراً عند موقع الأكواريوم في جُزر الديمانيات بخليج عُمان ، سلطنة عُمان . تصوير مُدربة الغواصين وأستاذة التصوير الفوتوغرافي التحتمائي الكابتن عُلا خلف . 22.09.2017.

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) from 25 meters deep at Aquarium Dive site, Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman. Photo by: PADI Scuba Dive Instructor Ola Khalaf. 22.09.2017. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

References and Internet Websites

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic). 

KhalafNorman Ali (1983). Al-Hayat Al-Bahriyah fi Al-Kuwait (Sea Snakes in Kuwait). Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4, (07.12.1983), pp. 1-5 (In Arabic). 

Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/7084/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic). 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59405994/book-gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-a-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europe-between-1983-2004-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2004  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59407769/book-aquatica-arabica-an-aquatic-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europe-between-1980-2005-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2005  & eBook: https://joom.ag/nN6L

Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93. 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). 
Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli (July) 2007, 300 pp. Self-Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). Doctoral Dissertation. Ashwood University, USA. Doctor of Science Degree in Zoology (Summa Cumm Laude) on 26.09.2007. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm & Doctoral Dissertation : https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59397999/doctorate-dissertation-felidae-arabica-by-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-doctor-of-science-ashwood-university-usa-2007 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

سُلحفاة بحر منقار الصقر أو سُلحفاة الشرفاف على عُمق 25 متراً عند موقع الأكواريوم في جُزر الديمانيات بخليج عُمان ، سلطنة عُمان . تصوير مُدربة الغواصين وأستاذة التصوير الفوتوغرافي التحتمائي الكابتن عُلا خلف . 22.09.2017.

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) from 25 meters deep at Aquarium Dive site, Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman. Photo by: PADI Scuba Dive Instructor Ola Khalaf. 22.09.2017. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Dinosaur Tracks at Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. 09.07.2013. Youtube Video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEtF3FUegOQ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). The Bycatch of a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) in a fishing net on the Gaza Coast, Gaza, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 108, December 2013, Safar 1435 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtle

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Records of Dead Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) washed up on the Jaffa Beach, Occupied Palestine between 2010-2013. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 114, June 2014, Sha’ban 1435 AH. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-sea-turtle-jaffa 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758) Nesting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 115, July 2014, Ramadan 1435 AH. pp. 1-9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-palestine.webs.com/loggerhead-turtle-palestine 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Ceratosaur Dinosaur Elaphrosaurus bambergi Janensch, 1920 Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 117, September 2014, Thu Al-Qi’da 1435 AH. pp. 1-33. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/ & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/dinosaurs_at_beit_zeit_al_quds_jeru & http://www.joomag.com/magazine/gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-issn-0178-6288-number-117-september-2014-pp-1-33/0426645001392611970?page=1 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Dinasurat Al Quds (Dinosaurs of Jerusalem). Dialogue with Prof. Dr. Norman Khalaf-von Jaffa. National Geographic Arabiya Magazine (October 2014, Pages 52--53). https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/15412670595 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Long-necked Whip-tailed Sauropod Dinosaur (Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus Galiano and Albersdörfer, 2010) Skeleton at Dubai Mall, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 120, December 2014. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/sauropod-dubai-mall 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dinasurat Al-Quds Al-Shareef, Filasteen Al-Muhtala / Dinosaurs of Al-Quds )Jerusalem(, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 122, February 2015. pp. 1-11. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (in Arabic). http://palestine-dinosaur.webs.com/dinosaur-al-quds-palestine 

Khalaf, Prof. Norman Ali Bassam (11 February 2015). Green Sea Turtle Nest Adoption at Mataking Island Malaysia. Facebook. Prof-Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/media_set?set=a.10153031166989831.1073741863.560519830&type=3 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) Nest Adoption at the Reef Dive Resort, Mataking Island, State of Sabah, Federation of Malaysia in 2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 1-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.sea-turtles-1.webs.com 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Diaphorodoris olakhalafi Khalaf, 2017 : A New Dorid Nudibranch Sea Slug Species from the Sea of Khorfakkan, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 31-47. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/diaphorodoris-olakhalafi & https://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/nudibranch_ola_khalaf & https://newsstand.joomag.com/en/gazelle-the-palestinian-biological-bulletin-issn-0178-6288-number-149-may-2017-pp-31-47/0798719001494476364 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2017). Trapania norakhalafae Khalaf, 2017: A New Dorid Nudibranch Sea Slug Species from the Dibba Sea, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. ترابانيا نورة خلفي خلف ، 2017 : نوع جديد من بُزاق البحر عاري الخياشيم من بحر دِبا ، الساحل الشرقي لدولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة ، خليج عُمان ، بحر العرب ، المُحيط الهندي . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Number 153, September 2017, pp. 7-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic & English). http://nudibranch-uae.webs.com/trapania-norakhalafae 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Ola Khalaf’s Nudibranch Sea Slug (Diaphorodoris olakhalafi Khalaf, 2017). بُزاق بحر عُلا خلف عاري الخياشيم ( ديافورودوريس عُلا خلفي خلف ، 2017) . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 159, March 2018, pp. 1-22. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic & English). http://nudibranch.webs.com/diaphorodoris-olakhalafi 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Nudibranch and Sea Slug Species of the United Arab Emirates – Part 1. أنواع بُزاق البحر وعاريات الخياشيم من دولة الإمارات العربية المُتحدة – الجُزء 1 . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 160, April 2018, pp. 1-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic & English). http://nudibranch.webs.com/nudibranch-uae-1 

Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (Photography) (2018). Presence of the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Rüppell, 1835) at Lima Rock and Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 164, August 2018, pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

PADI Scuba Dive Instructor and Underwater Photography Instructor Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving in Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. September 2017. Photo by: Diver Abdallah Al Ali (Dive World), QVQ Dive Team, UAE. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle

Mataking Island. www.mataking.com 

Mendonça, Vanda Mariyam; Salim Al Saady; Ali Al Kiyumi & Karim Erzini (2010) Interactions between Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) and Foxes (Vulpes vulpes arabica, V. rueppellii sabaea, and V. cana) on Turtle Nesting Grounds in the Northwestern Indian Ocean: Impacts of the Fox Community on the Behavior of Nesting Sea Turtles at the Ras Al Hadd Turtle Reserve, Oman. Zoological Studies 49(4): 437-452 (2010). http://tao.wordpedia.com/show_pdf.ashx?sess=wybu1145ive25s45oi2ni155&file_name=JO00001106_49-4_437-452&file_type=r 

National Geographic Arabiya Magazine (2014). Dinasurat Al Quds (Dinosaurs of Jerusalem). Dialogue with Prof. Dr. Norman Khalaf-von Jaffa. National Geographic Arabiya Magazine (October 2014, Pages 52--53). https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/15412670595 

The hawksbill turtle nesting population of the Dimaniyat Islands, in the Gulf of Oman. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263735071_The_hawksbill_turtle_nesting_population_of_the_Dimaniyat_Islands_in_the_Gulf_of_Oman 

The Reptile Database. Eretmochelys imbricata (LINNAEUS, 1766). http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Eretmochelys&species=imbricate 

Wikipedia. Echte Karettschildkröte. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echte_Karettschildkr%C3%B6te 

Wikipedia. Green sea turtle. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_sea_turtle 

Wikipedia. Hawksbill Sea Turtle. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawksbill_sea_turtle 

Wikipedia. Malaysia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysia 

Wikipedia. Ras Al Hadd. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ras_al_Hadd 

Wikipedia. Ras Al Jinz. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ras_al-Jinz 

Wikipedia. Sabah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabah 

Wikipedia. Suppenschildkröte. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suppenschildkröte

وزارة السياحة ، سلطنة عُمان . مشاهدة السلاحف . https://omantourism.gov.om/wps/portal/mot/tourism/oman/home/experiences/activities/turtle/!ut/p/a0/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOL9gwKD3fxcTQwMvN0NDTyN3F0DDA2DDU2CTfWDE4v0C7IdFQFGgpQk/

ويكيبيديا . سلحفاة خضراء . https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%A9_%D8%AE%D8%B6%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1

ويكيبيديا . لجأة صقرية المنقار . . https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A3%D8%A9_%D8%B5%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%B1

PADI Scuba Dive Instructor and Underwater Photography Instructor Ola Mostafa Khalaf diving in Al-Dimaniyat Islands, Gulf of Oman, Sultanate of Oman. September 2017. Photo by: Diver Bassam from QVQ Dive Team, UAE. http://sea-turtles-1.webs.com/hawksbill-sea-turtle